Access restricted to students and staff of home institution
master's thesis
Fiziološke reakcije kukuruza na vodni stres

Valentina Zmeškal (2016)
Sveučilište u Zagrebu
Agronomski fakultet
Opća proizvodnja bilja
Metadata
TitleFiziološke reakcije kukuruza na vodni stres
AuthorValentina Zmeškal
Mentor(s)Milan Poljak (thesis advisor)
Abstract
Kukuruz (Zea Mays L.) je jedna od najvažnijih kultura u svijetu uz pšenicu i rižu. Kao tropska biljka, kukuruz je osjetljiv na mraz i nedostatak vode, a prema potrebi za vodom ubraja se u biljke koje ekonomično troše vodu. Gubici uzrokovanim vodnim stresom u ukupnoj biljnoj proizvodnji na Zemlji (poljoprivreda, šumarstvo) veći su od gubitaka uzrokovanih svim drugim biotskim i abiotskim čimbenicima zajedno. Cilj ovoga diplomskog rada je utvrditi učinak vodnog stresa na fotosintetsku aktivnost i oksidativni stres kukuruza. U pokusu je korišten jedan od komercijalno najzastupljenijih hibrida u poljoprivrednoj proizvodnji u Hrvatskoj, hibrid Pajdaš. Pokus je postavljen u komorama rasta Agronomskog fakulteta u Zagrebu, po shemi slučajnog bloknog rasporeda u tri ponavljanja. Tretmani suše su primijenjeni u fazi tri razvijena lista, navodnjavanjem biljaka otopinama polietilen glikola (u koncentracijama koje su izazvale osmotski potencijal medija od -5 MPa i -1 MPa (kontrola). Svaki tretman je primjenjivan tijekom tri tjedna, a mjerenja indeksa sadržaja klorofila i paametara fotosinteze (intenzitet fotosinteze (A), provodljivost puči (gs), intenzitet transpiracije (E), intercelularna koncentracije CO2 (ci)) su obavljana 24 h nakon primjene tretmana. Na kraju pokusa određena je koncentracija prolina, stupanj oksidacije lipida i istjecanje iona. Stres suše nije uzrokovao pad sadržaja klorofila, ali je izazvao značajnu redukciju fotosintetskih parametara (A, E, gs, ci) te možemo pretpostaviti da pad intenziteta fotosinteze nije uzrokovan smanjenom sposobnošću fotosintetskog aparata za apsorpciju svjetlosti. Glavni razlog smanjenja intenziteta fotosinteze jest redukcija provodljivosti puči. Redukcijom provodljivosti puči, istovremeno je došlo i do smanjenja intercelularne koncentracije CO2, što je uzrokovalo pad intenziteta fotosinteze. Koncentracije prolina, istjecanje iona i koncentracije malondialdehida (MDA) bile su veće kod tretmana suše (-5 MPa), u odnosu na kontrolu. Povećana peroksidacija lipida izazvala je narušavanje strukture biomembrana zbog čega je došlo i do povećanja istjecanja iona iz stanica, što je također mogući uzrok pada intenziteta fotosinteze pri duljem izlaganju biljaka stresu suše.
Keywordsmaize water deficit stress drought photosynthetic activity
Committee MembersMilan Poljak (committee chairperson)
Ana Pospišil (committee member)
Hrvoje Šarčević (committee member)
Boris Lazarević (committee member)
GranterSveučilište u Zagrebu
Agronomski fakultet
Lower level organizational unitsOpća proizvodnja bilja
PlaceZagreb
StateCroatia
Scientific field, discipline, subdisciplineBIOTECHNICAL SCIENCES
Agronomy
Study programme typeuniversity
Study levelgraduate
Study programmeAgroecology
Academic title abbreviationmag. ing. agr.
Genremaster's thesis
Language Croatian
Defense date2016-09-28
Parallel abstract (English)
Maize (Zea Mays L.) is one of the most important cultures in the world along wheat and rice. As a tropical plant, maize is sensitive on frost and water deficiency, and according to needs for water, it is one of plants that economical spents water. Losses caused by the water deficit stress in total crop production on the Earth (agriculture, forestry) are greater than losses caused by all other biotic and abiotic factors together. The objective of this master thesis is to determine the effect of water deficit stress on the photosynthetic activity and oxidative stress of maize. In the experiment was used hybrid Pajdaš, that is one of the most usually commercial hybrids in agricultural production in Croatia. Experiment was set in growth chambers in Faculty of Agriculture in Zagreb, on scheme of random blocked schedule in three repetition. Treatments of drought was applied in stage of three developed leaves,and plants were irrigated with polyethylene glycol dilutions (in concentrations that caused osmotic potential of the media from -5 and -1 MPa (control). Each treatment was applied in a period of three weeks, but measurements of chlorophyll concentration index (CCI), and parameters of photosynthesis (photosynthesis intensity (A), stomatal cunductance (gs), transpiration intensity (E) and intercelular concentration od CO2 (ci), were practised 24 hours after treatment application. In the end of the experiment is determined concentration of proline, the degree of oxidation of lipid and leakage of ions. Drought stress was not caused falling in chlorophyll content, but has caused significant reduction of parameters of photosynthesis (A, E, gs, ci) and we can assume that falling of photosynthetic intensity isn't caused with reduce capability of the photosynthetic apparatus for absorption of light. The main reason of reducing photosynthesis intensity is reduction of stomatal conductance. By reduction of stomatal conductance, at the same time it is come to the reduction of intercelular concentration of CO₂, which caused falling of photosynthesis intensity. Concentration of proline, leakage ions and concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) was bigger in the treatment of drought (-5 MPa), compared to control. Increased lipid peroxidation caused distortion of the structure of biomembranes which has caused increased leakage of ions from cells, which is possible cause of falling of the photosynthesis intensity at prolonged exposure of plants to drought stress.
Parallel keywords (Croatian)kukuruz vodni stres suša fotosintetska aktivnost
Resource typetext
Access conditionAccess restricted to students and staff of home institution
Terms of usehttp://rightsstatements.org/vocab/InC/1.0/
URN:NBNhttps://urn.nsk.hr/urn:nbn:hr:204:593925
CommitterValentina Bezek