master's thesis
Genetic Diversity of Grape Phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch) Genotypes in Croatia

Marko Čajić (2016)
University of Zagreb
Faculty of Agriculture
Department of Plant Pathology
Metadata
TitleGenetska raznolikost genotipova trsova ušenca (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch) u Hrvatskoj
AuthorMarko Čajić
Mentor(s)Ivan Pejić (thesis advisor)
Abstract
Trsov ušenac (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch) je poznat štetnik vinogradarstva u Europi i diljem svijeta. Introdukcija štetnika iz Amerike u Europu u drugoj polovici 19. stoljeća dovela je do propadanja vinograda i velikih ekonomskih gubitaka. Početkom dvadesetog stoljeća američke sorte i njihovi hibridi uvode se kao podloge za europske sorte vinove loze za postizanje otpornosti na trsova ušenca, obzirom da ekonomska šteta proizlazi iz uništavanja korijena plemenite loze. Podloge su pokazivale malu ili nikakvu štetu, te se prvotno mislilo da su rezistentne. Porastom šteta u posljednjih par desetljeća, došlo se do zaključka da su podloge vjerojatnije tolerantne, nego u potpunosti rezistentne na trsova ušenca. U praksi je dobro poznat slučaj u kojemu je trsov ušenac prevladao rezistentnost biljke te doveo do ekonomskih gubitaka na podlogama AxR1 u Kaliforniji. Obzirom na ishranu i razvoj, štetnik se pojavljuje u dvije forme, trsov ušenac koji se hrani i obitava na korijenu (root-feeding phylloxera) i forma koja se hrani i obitava na listu (leaf-feeding phylloxera). Iako se štete izazvane ishranom štetnika na listu obično smatraju zanemarivima, one ipak dovodi do smanjene fotosinteze i dodatnih venuća tkiva na biljci, te utječu i na veličinu populacije forme koja obitava i pravi štetu na korijenu.Cilj ovoga rada je utvrditi genetski diverzitet populacija trsovog ušenca koje se hrane listom sa područja Hrvatske, te ga usporediti sa diverzitetom analognih populacija iz Gradišća (Burgenland) u Austriji. Uzimanje uzoraka jedinki trsova ušenca obavljeno je na listu zaraženih biljaka u jesen 2015. Uzorci su sakupljeni na dvadesetjednoj lokaciji u Dubrovačko-Neretvanskoj, Splitsko-Dalmatinskoj, ŠibenskoKninskoj, PrimorskoGoranskoj, Virovitičko-Podravskoj i Zagrebačkoj županiji. Izolacija DNA iz L5 stadija štetnika i genotipizacija jedinki standardiziranim setom od 7 SSR markera, te analiza PCR produkata na kapilarnom sekvenceru ABI 3130 xl provedena je na Sveučilištu BOKU (Austrija). Ukupno je genotipizirano i analizirano 120 jedinki trsova ušenca. Utvrđena je visoka genetska varijabilnost populacija iz Hrvatske, a posebno među jedinkama iz priobalnog područja. Rezultati su potvrdili visok udio jedinki proisteklih iz aseksualnog razmnožavnja (1/3), ali među njima nije uočen dominantni genotip (klon).
Keywordsgrape phylloxera genotype genetic diversity SSR
Parallel title (English)Genetic Diversity of Grape Phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch) Genotypes in Croatia
Committee MembersIvan Pejić (committee chairperson)
Božena Barić (committee member)
Astrid Forneck (committee member)
GranterUniversity of Zagreb
Faculty of Agriculture
Lower level organizational unitsDepartment of Plant Pathology
PlaceZagreb
StateCroatia
Scientific field, discipline, subdisciplineBIOTECHNICAL SCIENCES
Agronomy
Study programme typeuniversity
Study levelgraduate
Study programmePhytomedicine
Academic title abbreviationmag. ing. agr.
Genremaster's thesis
Language Croatian
Defense date2016-12-09
Parallel abstract (English)
Grape phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch) is known to be a major pest for European and worldwide viticulture (Powel et al., 2013). Introduction of the pest from America to Europe in the second half of the 19th century led to the economic losses due to the destruction of vineyards. At the beginning of the 20th century American vines and their hybrids were used as rootstocks for European grapevine varieties to achieve a partial phylloxera tolerance. As a result, the hybrids showed less or no damage from phylloxera, they were initially thought to be resistant. With the increasing damage in the last few decades, it was realized that rootstocks are rather phylloxera tolerant, than completely resistant. The cases of phylloxera overcoming plant resistance leading to economic loss on the rootstock AxR1 in California are well known. With regard to feeding and development, pest occurs in two forms - phylloxera, which feeds and lives on the root (root-feeding phylloxera) and phylloxera which feeds and lives on the feeding (leaf-feeding phylloxera). Although damage by leaf-feeding phylloxera is often neglected, it does lead to reduction of photosynthesis and an additional sink tissue for the plants, it also affects the size of the population forms that inhabits and is doing the damage to the roots.The aim of this thesis was to determine the genetic diversity of grape phylloxera leaf feeding populations in Croatia and compare it with the similar data representing phylloxera genotypes from Burgenland, Austria, expecting a lot of variation within Croatian genotypes due to the diversity of the Croatian climate. The field sampling of grape phylloxera indiviudals has been conducted on the leaf infested plants, in Croatia on fall 2015. The samples were collected in DubrovačkoNeretvanska, SplitskoDalmatinska, Šibensko-Kninska, Primorsko-Goranska, Virovitičko-Podravska and Zagrebačka county. The isolation of the DNA from L5 stage of pest and the genotyping of individuals with standardized set of 7 SSR markers, and the analysis of PCR products on capillary sequencer ABI 3130 xl were conducted at the University of BOKU (Austria).In total, 120 individuals of phylloxera were genotyped and analyzed. A high genetic variability of Croatian populations was assessed, especially among individuals of the coastal area. The results confirmed a high proportion of individuals resulting from asexual reproduction (1/3), but among them the dominant genotype (clone) was not observed.
Parallel keywords (Croatian)trsov ušenac genotip genetski diverzitet SSR
Resource typetext
Access conditionOpen access
Terms of usehttp://rightsstatements.org/vocab/InC/1.0/
URN:NBNhttps://urn.nsk.hr/urn:nbn:hr:204:957470
CommitterValentina Bezek